Timing is Everything
General knowledge of who the orishas are, what their characteristics are, patakis about them, a general understanding of how the universe was created, the role of Olodumare, the role of the Orishas, concepts related to life and death, our relationship to nature, songs and prayers, recognition of the different rhythms for the orishas and basic understanding of how to dance for them, a general understanding of how the religion works in terms of divination, ebbo, initiation, etc. - these are bits of knowledge that aleyos pick up and learn over time by spending time at the godparent's house, talking to the godparent and other elders, attending religious gatherings where there is a chance to talk to people, perhaps reading recommended material provided by the godparent. There is the understanding that not everyone needs to be initiated, and if you don't need to be initiated, then you don't need to know what a priest knows. You don't have open access to all the information because that's not how the religion works.
You Must Learn to Respect Authority
In a busy ile, there will be other oloshas (and perhaps babalawos) who come and go, who spend time there, and you can also interact with them, but never forgetting that your godparent is the final authority. If there are differences of opinion, your godfather's opinion is the one you listen to. Other olorishas will not try to steal way godchildren or undermine the relationship between godchild and godparent. They can be a support system, but not take the place of the godparent. The only authority over the godparent in matters of ceremony and protocol could possibly be the obba-oriaté who instructs you about something in an area where your godparent's knowledge is limited. If the godparent doesn't know something, he/she won't pretend they do. They will call or visit someone who does know, and find out the answer.
It Takes Time to Gain Experience and Knowledge
Some godparents will offer more formal "classes" or share written materials or give godchildren access to private libraries, depending on the teaching style of the godparent and the attitude of the godparent about these things. But this is a more modern approach, and not the norm. Most traditional godparents still teach in an informal, oral conversational style.
Once you are initiated and undergo the year long iyaworaje period, then do the required ceremonies to be able to work in the orisha room, you can start attending ceremonies and helping. This is where you get hands on experience and learn how things are done. You are working with a community of experienced people, and they show you how to do things. If you have an interest and the aché to divine, you learn how to divine, including an indepth understanding of Odu. After you are fully initiated, you can deepen your knowledge and understanding of the religion.
We believe that being initiated (being crowned) changes your head, it creates a new you, a new way of understanding and grasping knowledge, as an "insider." Things will start to make sense to you in a way that they never would before once you have gone through the ceremony yourself. Sharing knowledge with people before they are ready to know it is a waste of time. Knowing intellectually, having the facts, is one thing, but the more profound level of knowing comes from a deep internalization of the knowledge that is only possible by being deeply immersed in the religion. We have many proverbs about knowledge, and the sharing of knowledge. My favorite (and one that was repeated to me numerous times when I was "young" in the religion) is "the surest way to know nothing is to try to learn everything all at once." We also have a proverb that says "a wise man(or woman) doesn't share all he/she knows." These proverbs inform our way of thinking, and so when an elder is reluctant to share information, it's not a personal rejection of you and your question. It just means that it's inappropriate to ask.
Don't Force Your Worldview on Our Tradition
Finally, don't attempt to answer a question if you don't have the knowledge to answer it. If you are asking a question like what's your favorite color, everyone gets an opinion. But if you are talking about the religion, you either know or don't know the information, there is a foundation to the information, you either have it or you don't. Spreading false or mistaken ideas causes a lot of damage and confuses people.
Yes, I know the world has changed, but we stand on the shoulders of those who went before us, and we do things the way we were taught. Change requires very careful reflection, divination, and is a community-based process, not one that happens overnight because of new technology.